CHAPTER 1 - Kinds
of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire or passion,
CHAPTER 2 - Of the embrace
CHAPTER 3 - On kissing
CHAPTER 4 - On Pressing, or
marking, or scratching with the nails
CHAPTER 5 - On biting, and
the means to be employed with regard to women of different countries
CHAPTER 6 - Of the different ways of lying down, and various
kinds of congress
CHAPTER 7 - Of the various modes of striking, and of the
sounds appropriate to them
CHAPTER 8 - About women acting the part of a man; and
of the work of a man
CHAPTER 9 - Of the auparishtaka or mouth congress
CHAPTER 10 - Of the way how to begin and how to end the
congress. Different kinds of congress and love quarrels
Kinds of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire
or passion, time
Kind of Union
MAN is divided into three classes, viz. the hare man, the bull
man, and the horse man, according to the size of his lingam. Woman
also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer,
a mare, or a female elephant.
There are thus three equal unions between persons of corresponding
dimensions, and there are six unequal unions, when the dimensions
do not correspond, or nine in all, as the following table shows:
In these unequal unions, when the male exceeds the female in point
of size, his union with a woman who is immediately next to him
in size is called high union, and is of two kinds; while his union
with the woman most remote from his size is called the highest
union, and is of one kind only. On the other hand, when the female
exceeds the male in point of size, her union with a man immediately
next to her in size is called low union, and is of two kinds;
while her union with a man most remote from her in size is called
the lowest union, and is of one kind only. In other words, the
horse and mare, the bull and deer, form the high union, while
the horse and deer form the highest union. On the female side,
the elephant and bull, the mare and hare, form low unions, while
the elephant has and the hare make the lowest unions. There are,
then, nine kinds of union according to dimensions. Amongst all
these, equal unions are the best, those of a superlative degree,
i.e. the highest and the lowest, are the worst, and the rest are
middling, and with them the high (1) are better than the low.
A man is called a man of small passion whose desire at the time
of sexual union is not great, whose semen is scanty, and who cannot
bear the warm embraces of the female. Those who differ from this
temperament are called men of middling passion, while those of
intense passion are full of desire.
In the same way, women are supposed to have the three degrees
of feeling as specified above. Lastly, according to time there
are three kinds of men and women, the short-timed, the moderate-timed,
and the long-timed; and of these, as in the previous statements,
there are nine kinds of union. But on this last head there is
a difference of opinion about the female, which should be
stated. Auddalika says, `Females do not emit as males do. The
males simply remove their desire, while the females, from their
consciousness of desire, feel a certain kind of pleasure, which
gives them satisfaction, but it is impossible for them to tell
you what kind of pleasure they feel. The fact from which this
becomes evident is, that males, when engaged in coition, cease
of themselves after emission, and are satisfied, but it is not
so with females.' This opinion is however objected to on the grounds
that, if a male be a long-timed, the
female loves him the more, but if he be short-timed, she is dissatisfied
with him. And this circumstance, some say, would prove that the
female emits also.
But this opinion does not hold good, for if it takes a long time
to allay a woman's desire, and during this time she is enjoying
great pleasure, it is quite natural then that she should wish
for its continuation. And on this subject there is a verse as
`By union with men the lust, desire, or passion of women is satisfied,
and the pleasure derived from the consciousness of it is called
The followers of Babhravya, however, say that the semen of women
continues to fall from the beginning of the sexual union to its
end, and it is right that it should be so, for if they had no
semen there would be no embryo. To this there is an objection.
In the beginning of coition the passion of the woman is middling,
and she cannot bear the vigorous thrusts of her lover, but by
degrees her passion increases until she ceases to think about
her body, and then finally she wishes to stop from further coition.
This objection, however, does not hold good, for even in ordinary
things that revolve with great force, such as a potter's wheel,
or a top, we find that the motion at first is slow, but by degrees
it becomes very rapid. In the same way the passion of the woman
having gradually increased, she has a desire to discontinue coition,
when all the semen has fallen away. And there is a verse with
regard to this as follows:
`The fall of the semen of the man takes place only at the end
of coition, while the semen of the woman falls continually, and
after the semen of both has all fallen away then they wish for
the discontinuance of coition.' (2)
Lastly, Vatsyayana is of opinion that the semen of the female
falls in the same way as that of the male. Now some may ask here:
If men and women are beings of the same kind, and are engaged
in bringing about the same results, why should they have different
works to do?
Vatsya says that this is so, because the ways of working as well
as the consciousness of pleasure in men and women are different.
The difference in the ways of working, by which men are the actors,
and women are the persons acted upon, is owing to the nature of
the male and the female, otherwise the actor would be sometimes
the person acted upon, and vice versa. And from this difference
in the ways of working follows the difference in the consciousness
of pleasure, for a man thinks, `this woman is united with me',
and a woman thinks, `I am united with this man'. It may be said
that, if the ways of working in men and women are different, why
should not there be a difference, even in the pleasure they feel,
and which is the result of those ways. But this objection is groundless,
for, the person acting and the person acted upon being of different
kinds, there is a reason for the difference in their ways of working;
but there is no reason for any difference in the pleasure they
feel, because they both naturally derive pleasure from the act
they perform. (3)
On this again some may say that when different persons are engaged
in doing the same work, we find that they accomplish the same
end or purpose; while, on the contrary, in the case of men and
women we find that each of them accomplishes his or her own end
separately, and this is inconsistent. But this is a mistake, for
we find that sometimes two things are done at the same time, as
for instance in the fighting of rams, both the rams receive the
shock at the same time on their heads. Again, in throwing one
wood apple against another, and also in a fight or struggle of
wrestlers. If it be said that in these cases the things employed
are of the same kind, it is answered that even in the case of
men and women, the nature of the two persons is the same. And
as the difference in their ways of working arises from the difference
of their conformation only, it follows that men experience the
same kind of pleasure as women do.
There is also a verse on this subject as follows:
`Men and women, being of the same nature, feel the same kind of
pleasure, and therefore a man should marry such a woman as will
love him ever afterwards.'
The pleasure of men and women being thus proved to be of the same
kind, it follows that, in regard to time, there are nine kinds
of sexual intercourse, in the same way as there are nine kinds,
according to the force of passion.
There being thus nine kinds of union with regard to dimensions,
force of passion, and time, respectively, by making combinations
of them, innumerable kinds of union would be produced. Therefore
in each particular kind of sexual union, men should use such means
as they may think suitable for the occasion (4). At the first
time of sexual union the passion of the male is intense, and his
time is short, but in subsequent unions on the same day the reverse
of this is the case. With the female, however, it is the contrary,
for at the first time her passion is weak, and then her time long,
but on subsequent occasions on the same day, her passion is intense
and her time short, until her passion is satisfied.
On the different Kind of Love
Men learned in the humanities are of opinion that love is of
Love acquired by continual habit
Love resulting from the imagination
Love resulting from belief
Love resulting from the perception of external objects
Love resulting from the constant and continual performance of
some act is called love acquired by constant practice and habit,
as for instance the love of sexual intercourse, the love of hunting,
the love of drinking, the love of gambling, etc., etc.
Love which is felt for things to which we are not habituated,
and which proceeds entirely from ideas, is called love resulting
from imagination, as for instance that love which some men and
women and eunuchs feel for the Auparishtaka or mouth congress,
and that which is felt by all for such things as embracing, kissing,
The love which is mutual on both sides, and proved to be true,
when each looks upon the other as his or her very own, such is
called love resulting from belief by the learned.
The love resulting from the perception of external objects is
quite evident and well known to the world. because the pleasure
which it affords is superior to the pleasure of the other kinds
of love, which exists only for its sake.
What has been said in this chapter upon the subject of sexual
union is sufficient for the learned; but for the edification of
the ignorant, the same will now be treated of at length and in
1 High unions are said to be better than low
ones, for in the former it is possible for the male to satisfy
his own passion without injuring the female, while in the latter
it is difficult for the female to be satisfied by any means.
2 The strength of passion with women varies a
great deal, some being easily satisfied, and others eager and
willing to go on for a long time. To satisfy these last thoroughly
a man must have recourse to art. It is certain that a fluid flows
from the woman in larger or smaller quantities, but her satisfaction
is not complete until she has experienced the `spasme génêtique',
as described in a
French work recently published and called Brevaire as l'Amour
Experimental par le Dr Jules Guyot.
3 This is a long dissertation very common among
Sanscrit authors, both when writing and talking socially. They
start certain propositions, and then argue for and against them.
What it is presumed the author means is that, though both men
and women derive pleasure from the act of coition, the way it
is produced is brought about by different means, each individual
performing his own work
in the matter, irrespective of the other, and each deriving individually
their own consciousness of pleasure from the act they perform.
There is a difference in the work that each does, and a difference
in the consciousness of pleasure that each has, but no difference
in the pleasure they feel, for each feels that pleasure to a greater
or lesser degree.
4 This paragraph should be particularly noted,
for it specially applies to married men and their wives. So many
men utterly ignore the feelings of the women, and never pay the
slightest attention to the passion of the latter. To understand
the subject thoroughly, it is absolutely necessary to study it,
and then a person will know that, as dough is prepared for baking,
so must a woman be prepared for sexual intercourse, if she is
to derive satisfaction from it.
Of the embrace
Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and
woman who have come
together is of four kinds:
The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word
which stands for it.
When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongside
of a woman and touches her body with his own, it is called the
When a woman in a lonely place bends down, as if to pick up something,
and pierces, as it were, a man sitting or standing, with her breasts,
and the man in return takes hold of them, it is called a `piercing
The above two kinds of embrace take place only between persons
who do not, as yet, speak freely with each other.
When two lovers are walking slowly together, either in the dark,
or in a place of public resort, or in a lonely place, and rub
their bodies against each other, it is called a `rubbing embrace'.
When on the above occasion one of them presses the other's body
forcibly against a wall or pillar, it is called a `pressing embrace'.
These two last embraces are peculiar to those who know the intentions
of each other.
At the time of the meeting the four following kinds of embrace
Jataveshtitaka, or the twining of a creeper.
Vrikshadhirudhaka, or climbing a tree.
Tila-Tandulaka, or the mixture of sesamum seed with rice.
Kshiraniraka, or milk and water embrace.
When a woman, clinging to a man as a creeper twines round a tree,
bends his head down to hers with the desire of kissing him and
slightly makes the sound of sut sut, embraces him, and looks lovingly
towards him, it is called an embrace like the `twining of a creeper'.
When a woman, having placed one of her feet on the foot of her
lover, and the other on one of his thighs, passes one of her arms
round his back, and the other on his shoulders, makes slightly
the sounds of singing and cooing, and wishes, as it were, to climb
up him in order to have a kiss, it is called an embrace like the
`climbing of a tree'.
These two kinds of embrace take place when the lover is standing.
When lovers lie on a bed, and embrace each other so closely that
the arms and thighs of the one are encircled by the arms and thighs
of the other, and are, as it were, rubbing up against them, this
is called an embrace like `the mixture of sesamum seed with rice'.
When a man and a woman are very much in love with each other,
and, not thinking of any pain or hurt, embrace each other as if
they were entering into each other's bodies either while the woman
is sitting on the lap of the man, or in front of him, or on a
bed, then it is called an embrace like a `mixture of milk and
These two kinds of embrace take place at the time of sexual union.
Babhravya has thus related to us the above eight kinds of embraces.
Suvarnanabha moreover gives us four ways of embracing simple members
of the body, which are:
The embrace of the thighs.
The embrace of the jaghana, i.e. the part of the body from the
navel downwards to the thighs.
The embrace of the breasts.
The embrace of the forehead.
When one of two lovers presses forcibly one or both of the thighs
of the other between his or her own, it is called the `embrace
When a man presses the jaghana or middle part of the woman's body
against his own, and mounts upon her to practise, either scratching
with the nail or finger, or biting, or striking, or kissing, the
hair of the woman being loose and flowing, it is called the `embrace
of the jaghana'.
When a man places his breast between the breasts of a of Vatsyayana
woman and presses her with it, it is called the `embrace of the
When either of the lovers touches the mouth, the eyes and the
forehead of the other with his or her own, it is called the `embrace
of the forehead'.
Some say that even shampooing is a kind of embrace, because there
is a touching of bodies in it. But Vatsyayana thinks that shampooing
is performed at a different time, and for a different purpose,
and it is also of a different character, it cannot be said to
be included in the embrace.
There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
`The whole subject of embracing is of such a nature that men who
ask questions about it, or who hear about it, or who talk about
it, acquire thereby a desire for enjoyment. Even those embraces
that are not mentioned in the Kama Shastra should be practised
at the time of sexual enjoyment, if they are in any way conducive
to the increase of love or passion. The rules of the Shastra apply
so long as the passion of man is middling, but when the wheel
of love is once set in motion, there is then no Shastra and no
It is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between
the embrace, the kiss, and the pressing or scratching with the
nails or fingers, but that all these things should be done generally
before sexual union takes place, while striking and making the
various sounds generally takes place at the time of the union.
Vatsyayana, however, thinks that anything may take place at any
time, for love does not care for time or order.
On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other things
mentioned above should be done moderately, they should not be
continued for a long time, and should be done alternately. On
subsequent occasions, however, the reverse of all this may take
place, and moderation will not be necessary, they may continue
for a long time, and, for the purpose of kindling love, they may
be all done at the same time.
The following are the places for kissing: the forehead, the eyes,
the cheeks, the throat, the bosom, the breasts, the lips, and
the interior of the mouth. Moreover the people of the Lat country
kiss also on the following places: the joints of the thighs, the
arms and the navel. But Vatsyayana thinks that though kissing
is practised by these people in the above places on account of
the intensity of their love, and the customs of their country,
it is not fit to be practised by all.
Now in a case of a young girl there are three sorts of kisses:
The nominal kiss
The throbbing kiss
The touching kiss
When a girl only touches the mouth of her lover with her own,
but does not herself do anything, it is called the `nominal kiss'.
When a girl, setting aside her bashfulness a little, wishes to
touch the lip that is pressed into her mouth, and with that object
moves her lower lip, but not the upper one, it is called the `throbbing
When a girl touches her lover's lip with her tongue, and having
shut her eyes, places her hands on those of her lover, it is called
the `touching kiss'.
Other authors describe four other kinds of kisses:
The straight kiss
The bent kiss
The turned kiss
The pressed kiss
When the lips of two lovers are brought into direct contact with
each other, it is called a `straight kiss'.
When the heads of two lovers are bent towards each other, and
when so bent, kissing takes place, it is called a `bent kiss'.
When one of them turns up the face of the other by holding the
head and chin, and then kissing, it is called a `turned kiss'.
Lastly when the lower lip is pressed with much force, it is called
a `pressed kiss'.
There is also a fifth kind of kiss called the `greatly pressed
kiss', which is effected by taking hold of the lower lip between
two fingers, and then, after touching it with the tongue, pressing
it with great force with the lip.
As regards kissing, a wager may be laid as to which will get hold
of the lips of the other first. If the woman loses, she should
pretend to cry, should keep her lover off by shaking her hands,
and turn away from him and dispute with him saying, `let another
wager be laid'. If she loses this a second time, she should appear
doubly distressed, and when her lover is off his guard or asleep,
she should get hold of his lower lip, and hold it in her teeth,
so that it should not slip away, and then she should laugh, make
a loud noise, deride him, dance about, and say whatever she likes
in a joking way, moving her eyebrows and rolling her eyes. Such
are the wagers and quarrels as far as kissing is concerned, but
the same may be applied with regard to the pressing or scratching
with the nails and fingers, biting and striking. All these however
are only peculiar to men and women of intense passion.
When a man kisses the upper lip of a woman, while she in return
kisses his lower lip, it is called the `kiss of the upper lip'.
When one of them takes both the lips of the other between his
or her own, it is called `a clasping kiss'. A woman, however,
only takes this kind of kiss from a man who has no moustache.
And on the occasion of this kiss, if one of them touches the teeth,
the tongue, and the palate of the other, with his or her tongue,
it is called the `fighting of the tongue'. In the same way, the
pressing of the teeth of the one against the mouth of the other
is to be practised.
Kissing is of four kinds: moderate, contracted, pressed, and soft,
according to the different parts of the body which are kissed,
for different kinds of kisses are appropriate for different parts
of the body.
When a woman looks at the face of her lover while he is asleep
and kisses it to show her intention or desire, it is called a
`kiss that kindles love'.
When a woman kisses her lover while he is engaged in business,
or while he is
quarrelling with her, or while he is looking at something else,
so that his mind may be turned away, it is called a `kiss that
turns away'. When a lover coming home late at night kisses his
beloved, who is asleep on her bed, in order to show her his desire,
it is called a `kiss that awakens'. On such an occasion the
woman may pretend to be asleep at the time of her lover's arrival,
so that she may know his intention and obtain respect from him.
When a person kisses the reflection of the person he loves in
a mirror, in water, or on a wall, it is called a `kiss showing
When a person kisses a child sitting on his lap, or a picture,
or an image, or figure, in the presence of the person beloved
by him, it is called a `transferred kiss'.
When at night at a theatre, or in an assembly of caste men, a
man coming up to a woman kisses a finger of her hand if she be
standing, or a toe of her foot if she be sitting, or when a woman
is shampooing her lover's body, places her face on his thigh (as
if she was sleepy) so as to inflame his passion, and kisses his
thigh or great toe, it is called a `demonstrative kiss'.
There is also a verse on this subject as follows:
`Whatever things may be done by one of the lovers to the other,
the same should be returned by the other, i.e. if the woman kisses
him he should kiss her in return, if she strikes him he should
also strike her in return.'
On Pressing, or marking, or scratching with the nails
When love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching
the body with them is practised, and it is done on the following
occasions: on the first visit; at the time of setting out on a
journey; on the return from a journey; at the time when an angry
lover is reconciled; and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.
But pressing with the nails is not a usual thing except with those
who are intensely passionate, i.e. full of passion. It is employed,
together with biting, by those to whom the practice is agreeable.
Pressing with the nails is of the eight following kinds, according
to the forms of the marks which are produced:
· Half moon
· A circle
· A line
· A tiger's nail or claw
· A peacock's foot
· The jump of a hare
· The leaf of a blue lotus
The places that are to be pressed with the nails are as follows:
the arm pit, the throat, the breasts, the lips, the jaghana, or
middle parts of the body, and the thighs. But Suvarnanabha is
of opinion that when the impetuosity of passion is excessive,
the places need not be considered.
The qualities of good nails are that they should be bright, well
set, clean, entire, convex, soft, and glossy in appearance. Nails
are of three kinds according to their size:
Large nails, which give grace to the hands, and attract the hearts
of women from their appearance, are possessed by the Bengalees.
Small nails, which can be used in various ways, and are to be
applied only with the object of giving pleasure, are possessed
by the people of the southern districts.
Middling nails, which contain the properties of both the above
kinds, belong to the people of the Maharashtra.
When a person presses the chin, the breasts, the lower lip, or
the jaghana of another so softly that no scratch or mark is left,
but only the hair on the body becomes erect from the touch of
the nails, and the nails themselves make a sound, it is called
a `sounding orpressing with the nails'. This pressing is used
in the case of a young girl when her lover shampoos her, scratches
her head, and wants to trouble or frighten her.
The curved mark with the nails, which is impressed on the neck
and the breasts, is called the `half moon'.
When the half moons are impressed opposite to each other, it is
called a `circle'. This mark with the nails is generally made
on the navel, the small cavities about the buttocks, and on the
joints of the thigh.
A mark in the form of a small line, and which can be made on any
part of the body, is called a `line'.
This same line, when it is curved, and made on the breast, is
called a `tiger's nail'.
When a curved mark is made on the breast by means of the five
nails, it is called a `peacock's foot'. This mark is made with
the object of being praised, for it requires a great deal of skill
to make it properly.
When five marks with the nails are made close to one another near
the nipple of the breast, it is called `the jump of a hare'.
A mark made on the breast or on the hips in the form of a leaf
of the blue lotus is called the `leaf of a blue lotus'.
When a person is going on a journey, and makes a mark on the thighs,
or on the breast, it is called a `token of remembrance'. On such
an occasion three or four lines are impressed close to one another
with the nails.
Here ends the marking with the nails. Marks of other kinds than
the above may also be made with the nails, for the ancient authors
say that, as there are innumerable degrees of skill among men
(the practice of this art being known to all), so there are innumerable
ways of making these marks. And as pressing or marking with the
nails is independent of love, no one can say with certainty how
many different kinds of marks with the nails do actually exist.
The reason of this is, Vatsyayana says, that as variety is necessary
in love, so love is to be Produced by means of variety. It is
on this account that courtesans, who are well acquainted with
various ways and means, become so desirable, for if variety is
sought in all the arts and amusements, such as archery and others,
how much more should it be sought after in the present case.
The marks of the nails should not be made on married women, but
particular kinds of marks may be made on their private parts for
the remembrance and increase of love. There are also some verses
on the subject, as follows:
`The love of a woman who sees the marks of nails on the private
parts of her body, even though they are old and almost worn out,
becomes again fresh and new. If there be no marks of nails to
remind a person of the passages of love, then love is lessened
in the same way as when no union takes place for a long time.'
Even when a stranger sees at a distance a young woman with the
marks of nails on her breast (1), he is filled with love and respect
for her. A man, also, who carries the marks of nails and teeth
on some parts of his body, influences the mind of a woman, even
though it be ever so firm. In short, nothing tends to
increase love so much as the effects of marking with the nails,
1 From this it would appear that in ancient times
the breasts of women were not covered, and this is seen in the
paintings of the Ajunta and other caves, where we find that the
breasts of even royal ladies and others are exposed.
On biting, and the means to be employed with regard to women of
All the places that can be kissed are also the places that can
be bitten, except the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and
The qualities of good teeth are as follows: They should be equal,
possessed of a pleasing brightness, capable of being coloured,
of proper proportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.
The defects of teeth on the other hand are that they are blunt,
protruding from the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.
The following are the different kinds of biting:
The hidden bite
The swollen bite
The line of points
The coral and the jewel
The line of jewels
The broken cloud
The biting of the boar
The biting, which is shown only by the excessive redness of the
skin that is bitten, is called the `hidden bite'.
When the skin is pressed down on both sides, it is called the
When a small portion of the skin is bitten with two teeth only,
it is called the `point'.
When such small portions of the skin are bitten with all the teeth,
it is called the `line of points'.
The biting, which is done by bringing together the teeth and the
lips, is called the `coral and the jewel'. The lip is the coral,
and the teeth the jewel.
When biting is done with all the teeth, it is called the `line
The biting, which consists of unequal risings in a circle, and
which comes from the space between the teeth, is called the `broken
cloud'. This is impressed on the breasts.
The biting, which consists of many broad rows of marks near to
one another, and with red intervals, is called the `biting of
a boar'. This is impressed on the breasts and the shoulders; and
these two last modes of biting are peculiar to persons of intense
The lower lip is the place on which the `hidden bite', the swollen
bite', and the `point' are made; again the `swollen bite' and
the `coral and the jewel' bite are done on the cheek.
Kissing, pressing with the nails, and biting are the ornaments
of the left cheek, and when the word cheek is used it is to be
understood as the left cheek.
Both the `line of points' and the `line of jewels' are to be impressed
on the throat, the arm pit, and the joints of the thighs; but
the `line of points' alone is to be impressed on the forehead
and the thighs.
The marking with the nails, and the biting of the following things
- an ornament of the forehead, an ear ornament, a bunch of flowers,
a betel leaf, or a tamala leaf, which are worn by, or belong to
the woman that is beloved - are signs of the desire of enjoyment.
Here end the different kinds of biting.
In the affairs of love a man should do such things as are agreeable
to the women of different countries.
The women of the central countries (i.e. between the Ganges and
the Jumna) are noble in their character, not accustomed to disgraceful
practices, and dislike pressing the nails and biting.
The women of the Balhika country are gained over by striking.
The women of Avantika are fond of foul pleasures, and have not
The women of the Maharashtra are fond of practising the sixty-four
arts, they utter low and harsh words, and like to be spoken to
in the same way, and have an impetuous desire of enjoyment.
The women of Pataliputra (i.e. the modern Patna) are of the same
nature as the women of the Maharashtra, but show their likings
only in secret.
The women of the Dravida country, though they are rubbed and pressed
about at the time of sexual enjoyment, have a slow fall of semen,
that is they are very slow in the act of coition.
The women of Vanavasi are moderately passionate, they go through
every kind of enjoyment, cover their bodies, and abuse those who
utter low, mean and harsh words.
The women of Avanti hate kissing, marking with the nails, and
biting, but they have a fondness for various kinds of sexual union.
The women of Malwa like embracing and kissing, but not wounding,
and they are gained over by striking.
The women of Abhira, and those of the country about the Indus
and five rivers (i.e. the Punjab), are gained over by the Auparishtaka
or mouth congress.
The women of Aparatika are full of passion, and make slowly the
The women of the Lat country have even more impetuous desire,
and also make the sound `Sit'.
The women of the Stri Rajya, and of Koshola (Oude), are full of
impetuous desire, their semen falls in large quantities and they
are fond of taking medicine to make it do so.
The women of the Andhra country have tender bodies, they are fond
of enjoyment, and have a liking for voluptuous pleasures.
The women of Ganda have tender bodies, and speak sweetly.
Now Suvarnanabha is of opinion that that which is agreeable to
the nature of a particular person, is of more consequence than
that which is agreeable to a whole nation, and that therefore
the peculiarities of the country should not be observed in such
cases. The various pleasures, the dress, and the sports of one
country are in time borrowed by another, and in such a case these
things must be considered as belonging originally to that country.
Among the things mentioned above, viz. embracing, kissing, etc.,
those which increase passion should be done first, and those which
are only for amusement or variety should be done afterwards.
There are also some verses on this subject as follows:
`When a man bites a woman forcibly, she should angrily do the
same to him with double force. Thus a "point" should
be returned with a "line of points", and a "line
of points" with a "broken cloud", and if she be
excessively chafed, she should at once begin a love quarrel with
him. At such a time she should take hold of her lover by the hair,
and bend his head down, and kiss his lower lip, and then, being
intoxicated with love, she should shut her eyes and bite him in
various places. Even by day, and in a place of public resort,
when her lover shows her any mark that she may have inflicted
on his body, she should
smile at the sight of it, and turning her face as if she were
going to chide him, she should show him with an angry look the
marks on her own body that have been made by him. Thus if men
and women act according to each other's liking, their love for
each other will not be lessened even in one hundred years.'
Of the different ways of lying down, and various kinds of congress
On the occasion of a `high congress' the Mrigi (Deer) woman
should lie down in such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a
`low congress' the Hastini (Elephant) woman should lie down so
as to contract hers. But in an `equal congress' they should lie
down in the natural position. What is said above concerning the
Mrigi and the Hastini applies also to the Vadawa (Mare) woman.
In a `low congress the woman should particularly make use
of medicine, to cause her desires to be satisfied quickly.
The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down:
The widely opened position
The yawning position
The position of the wife of Indra
When she lowers her head and raises her middle parts, it is called
the `widely opened position'. At such a time the man should apply
some unguent, so as to make the entrance easy.
When she raises her thighs and keeps them wide apart and engages
in congress, it is called the `yawning position'.
When she places her thighs with her legs doubled on them upon
her sides, and thus engages in congress, it is called the position
of Indrani and this is learnt only by practice. The position is
also useful in the case of the `highest congress'.
The `clasping position' is used in `low congress', and in the
`lowest congress', together with the `pressing position', the
`twining position', and the `mare's position'.
When the legs of both the male and the female are stretched straight
out over each other, it is called the `clasping position'. It
is of two kinds, the side position and the supine position, according
to the way in which they lie down. In the side position the male
should invariably lie on his left side, and cause the woman to
lie on her right side, and this rule is to be observed in lying
down with all kinds of women.
When, after congress has begun in the clasping position, the woman
presses her lover with her thighs, it is called the `pressing
When the woman places one of her thighs across the thigh of her
lover it is called the `twining position'.
When a woman forcibly holds in her yoni the lingam after it is
in, it is called the `mare's position'. This is learnt by practice
only, and is chiefly found among the women of the Andhra country.
The above are the different ways of lying down, mentioned by Babhravya.
Suvarnanabha, however, gives the following in addition:
When the female raises both of her thighs straight up, it is called
the `rising position'.
When she raises both of her legs, and places them on her lover's
shoulders, it is called the `yawning position'.
When the legs are contracted, and thus held by the lover before
his bosom, it is called the `pressed position'.
When only one of her legs is stretched out, it is called the `half
When the woman places one of her legs on her lover's shoulder,
and stretches the other out, and then places the latter on his
shoulder, and stretches out the other, and continues to do so
alternately, it is called the `splitting of a bamboo'.
When one of her legs is placed on the head, and the other is stretched
out, it is called the `fixing of a nail'. This is learnt by practice
When both the legs of the woman are contracted, and placed on
her stomach, it is called the `crab's position'.
When the thighs are raised and placed one upon the other, it is
called the `packed position'.
When the shanks are placed one upon the other, it is called the
When a man, during congress, turns round, and enjoys the woman
without leaving her, while she embraces him round the back all
the time, it is called the `turning position', and is learnt only
Thus, says Suvarnanabha, these different ways of lying down, sitting,
and standing should be practised in water, because it is easy
to do so therein. But Vatsyayana is of opinion that congress in
water is improper, because it is prohibited by the religious law.
When a man and a woman support themselves on each other's bodies,
or on a wall, or pillar, and thus while standing engage in congress,
it is called the `supported congress'.
When a man supports himself against a wall, and the woman, sitting
on his hands joined together and held underneath her, throws her
arms round his neck, and putting her thighs alongside his waist,
moves herself by her feet, which are touching the wall against
which the man is leaning, it is called the `suspended congress'.
When a woman stands on her hands and feet like a quadruped, and
her lover mounts her like a bull, it is called the `congress of
a cow'. At this time everything that is ordinarily done on the
bosom should be done on the back.
In the same way can be carried on the congress of a dog, the congress
of a goat, the congress of a deer, the forcible mounting of an
ass, the congress of a cat, the jump of a tiger, the pressing
of an elephant, the rubbing of a boar, and the mounting of a horse.
And in all these cases the characteristics of these different
animals should be manifested by acting like them.
When a man enjoys two women at the same time, both of whom love
him equally, it is called the `united congress'.
When a man enjoys many women altogether, it is called the `congress
of a herd of cows'.
The following kinds of congress-sporting in water, or the congress
of an elephant with many female elephants which is said to take
place only in the water, the congress of a collection of goats,
the congress of a collection of deer take place in imitation of
In Gramaneri many young men enjoy a woman that may be married
to one of them, either one after the other, or at the same time.
Thus one of them holds her, another enjoys her, a third uses her
mouth, a fourth holds her middle part, and in this way they go
on enjoying her several parts alternately.
The same things can be done when several men are sitting in company
with one courtesan, or when one courtesan is alone with many men.
In the same way this can be done by the women of the king's harem
when they accidentally get hold of a man.
The people in the Southern countries have also a congress in the
anus, that is called the `lower congress'.
Thus ends the various kinds of congress. There are also two verses
on the subject as follows:
`An ingenious person should multiply the kinds of congress after
the fashion of the different kinds of beasts and of birds. For
these different kinds of congress, performed according to the
usage of each country, and the liking of each individual, generate
love, friendship, and respect in the hearts of women.'
Of the various modes of striking, and of the sounds appropriate
Sexual intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account
of the contrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The
place of striking with passion is the body, and on the body the
special places are:
The space between the breasts
The jaghana, or middle part of the body
Striking is of four kinds:
Striking with the back of the hand
Striking with the fingers a little contracted
Striking with the fist
Striking with the open palm of the hand
On account of its causing pain, striking gives rise to the hissing
sound, which is of various kinds, and to the eight kinds of crying:
The sound Hin
The thundering sound
The cooing sound
The weeping sound
The sound Phut
The sound Phât
The sound Sût
The sound Plât
Besides these, there are also words having a meaning, such as
`mother', and those that are expressive of prohibition, sufficiency,
desire of liberation, pain or praise, and to which may be added
sounds like those of the dove, the cuckoo, the green pigeon, the
parrot, the bee, the sparrow, the flamingo, the duck, and the
quail, which are all occasionally made use of.
Blows with the fist should be given on the back of the woman while
she is sitting on the lap of the man, and she should give blows
in return, abusing the man as if she were angry, and making the
cooing and the weeping sounds. While the woman is engaged in congress
the space between the breasts should be struck with the back of
the hand, slowly at first, and then proportionately to the increasing
excitement, until the end. At this time the sounds Hin and others
may be made, alternately or optionally, according to habit. When
the man, making the sound Phât, strikes the woman on the
head, with the fingers of his hand a little contracted, it is
called Prasritaka, which means striking with the fingers of the
hand a little contracted. In this case the appropriate sounds
are the cooing sound, the sound Phât and the sound Phut
in the interior of the mouth, and at the end of congress the sighing
and weeping sounds. The sound Phât is an imitation of the
sound of a bamboo being split, while the sound Phut is like the
sound made by something falling into water. At all times when
kissing and such like things are begun, the woman should give
a reply with a hissing sound. During the excitement when the woman
is not accustomed to striking, she continually utters words expressive
of prohibition, sufficiently, or desire of liberation, as well
as the words `father', `mother', intermingled with the sighing,
weeping and thundering sounds (1).
Towards the conclusion of the congress, the breasts, the jaghana,
and the sides of the woman should be pressed with the open palms
of the hand, with some force, until the end of it, and then sounds
like those of the quail or the goose should be made.
There are two verses on the subject as follows:
`The characteristics of manhood are said to consist of roughness
and impetuosity, while weakness, tenderness, sensibility, and
an inclination to turn away from unpleasant things are the distinguishing
marks of womanhood. The excitement of passion, and peculiarities
of habit may sometimes cause contrary results to appear, but these
do not last long, and in the end the natural state is resumed.'
The wedge on the bosom, the scissors on the head, the piercing
instrument on the cheeks, and the pinchers on the breasts and
sides, may also be taken into consideration with the other four
modes of striking, and thus give eight ways altogether. But these
four ways of striking with instruments are peculiar to the people
of the southern countries, and the marks caused by them are seen
on the breasts of their women. They are local peculiarities, but
Vatsyayana is of opinion that the practice of them is painful,
barbarous, and base, and quite unworthy of imitation.
In the same way anything that is a local peculiarity should not
always be adopted elsewhere, and even in the place where the practice
is prevalent, excess of it should always be avoided. Instances
of the dangerous use of them may be given as follows. The king
of the Panchalas killed the courtesan Madhavasena by means of
the wedge during congress. King Satakarni Satavahana of the Kuntalas
deprived his great Queen Malayavati of her life by a pair of scissors,
and Naradeva, whose hand was deformed, blinded a dancing girl
by directing a piercing instrument in a wrong way.
There are also two verses on the subject as follows:
`About these things there cannot be either enumeration or any
definite rule. Congress having once commenced, passion alone gives
birth to all the acts of the parties.'
`Such passionate actions and amorous gesticulations or movements,
which arise on the spur of the moment, and during sexual intercourse,
cannot be defined, and are as irregular as dreams. A horse having
once attained the fifth degree of motion goes on with blind speed,
regardless of pits, ditches, and posts in his way; and in the
same manner a loving pair become blind with passion in the heat
of congress, and go on with great impetuosity, paying not the
least regard to excess. For this reason one who is well acquainted
with the science of love, and knowing his own strength, as also
the tenderness, impetuosity, and strength of the young women,
should act accordingly. The various modes of enjoyment are not
for all times or for all persons, but they should only be used
at the proper time and in the proper countries and places.'
1 Men who are well acquainted with the art of love are
well aware how often one woman differs from another in her sighs
and sounds during the time of congress. Some women like to be
talked to in the most loving way, others in the most lustful way,
others in the most abusive way, and so on. Some women enjoy themselves
with closed eyes in silence, others make a great noise over it,
and some almost faint away. The great art is to ascertain what
gives them the greatest pleasure, and what specialities they like
About women acting the part of a man; and of the work of a man
When a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress,
without having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission,
lay him down upon his back, and give him assistance by acting
his part. She may also do this to satisfy the curiosity of her
lover, or her own desire of novelty.
There are two ways of doing this, the first is when during congress
she turns round, and gets on the top of her lover, in such a manner
as to continue the congress, without obstructing the pleasure
of it; and the other is when she acts the man's part from the
beginning. At such a time, with flowers in her hair hanging loose,
and her smiles broken by hard breathings, she should press upon
her lover's bosom with her own breasts, and lowering her head
frequently, should do in return the same actions which he used
to do before, returning his blows and chaffing him, should say,
`I was laid down by you, and fatigued with hard congress, I shall
now therefore lay you down in return.' She should then again manifest
her own bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire of stopping the
congress. In this way she should do the work of a man, which we
shall presently relate.
Whatever is done by a man for giving pleasure to a woman is called
the work of a man, and is as follows:
While the woman is lying on his bed, and is as it were abstracted
by his conversation, he should loosen the knot of her undergarments,
and when she begins to dispute with him, he should overwhelm her
with kisses. Then when his lingam is erect he should touch her
with his hands in various places, and gently manipulate various
parts of the body. If the woman is bashful, and if it is the first
time that they have come together, the man should place his hands
between her thighs, which she would probably keep close together,
and if she is a very young girl, he should first get his hands
upon her breasts, which she would probably cover with her own
hands, and under her armpits and on her neck. If however she is
a seasoned woman, he should do whatever is agreeable either to
him or to her, and whatever is fitting for the occasion. After
this he should take hold of her hair, and hold her chin in his
fingers for the purpose of kissing her. On this, if she is a young
girl, she will become bashful and close her eyes. Anyhow he should
gather from the action of the woman what things would be pleasing
to her during congress
Here Suvarnanabha says that while a man is doing to the woman
what he likes best during congress, he should always make a point
of pressing those parts of her body on which she turns her eyes.
The signs of the enjoyment and satisfaction of the woman are as
follows: her body relaxes, she closes her eyes, she puts aside
all bashfulness, and shows increased willingness to unite the
two organs as closely together as possible. On the other hand,
the signs of her want of enjoyment and of failing to be satisfied
are as follows: she shakes her hands, she does not let the man
get up, feels dejected, bites the man, kicks him, and continues
to go on moving after the man has finished. In such cases the
man should rub the yoni of the woman with his hand and fingers
(as the elephant rubs anything with his trunk) before engaging
in congress, until it is softened, and after that is done he should
proceed to put his lingam into her.
The acts to be done by the man are:
Friction or churning
Giving a blow
The blow of a boar
The blow of a bull
The sporting of a sparrow
When the organs are brought together properly and directly it
is called `moving the organ forward'.
When the lingam is held with the hand, and turned all round in
the yoni, it is called `churning'.
When the yoni is lowered, and the upper part of it is struck with
the lingam, it is called `piercing'.
When the same thing is done on the lower part of the yoni, it
is called rubbing'.
When the yoni is pressed by the lingam for a long time, it is
When the lingam is removed to some distance from the yoni, and
then forcibly strikes it, it is called `giving a blow'.
When only one part of the yoni is rubbed with the lingam, it is
called the `blow of a boar'.
When both sides of the yoni are rubbed in this way, it is called
the `blow of a bull'.
When the lingam is in the yoni, and moved up and down frequently,
and without being taken out, it is called the `sporting of a sparrow'.
This takes place at the end of congress.
When a woman acts the part of a man, she has the following things
to do in addition to the nine given above:
The pair of tongs
When the woman holds the lingam in her yoni, draws it in, presses
it, and keeps it thus in her for a long time, it is called the
`pair of tongs'.
When, while engaged in congress, she turns round like a wheel,
it is called the `top'. This is learnt by practice only.
When, on such an occasion, the man lifts up the middle part of
his body, and the woman turns round her middle part, it is called
When the woman is tired, she should place her forehead on that
of her lover, and should thus take rest without disturbing the
union of the organs, and when the woman has rested herself the
man should turn round and begin the congress again.
There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
`Though a woman is reserved, and keeps her feelings concealed;
yet when she gets on the top of a man, she then shows all her
love and desire. A man should gather from the actions of the woman
of what disposition she is, and in what way she likes to be enjoyed.
A woman during her monthly courses, a woman who has been lately
confined, and a fat woman should not be made to act the part of
Of the auparishtaka or mouth congress
THERE are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as
males, and those that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised
as females imitate their dress, speech, gestures, tenderness,
timidity, simplicity, softness and bashfulness. The acts that
are done on the jaghana or middle parts of women, are done in
the mouths of these eunuchs, and this is called Auparishtaka (1).
These eunuchs derive their imaginable pleasure, and their livelihood
from this kind of congress, and they lead the life of courtesans.
So much concerning eunuchs disguised as females.
Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when
they wish to do anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under
the pretence of shampooing, a eunuch of this kind embraces and
draws towards himself the thighs of the man whom he is shampooing,
and after this he touches the joints of his thighs and his jaghana,
or central portions of his body. Then, if he finds the lingam
of the man erect, he presses it with his hands and chaffs him
for getting into that state. If after this, and after knowing
his intention, the man does not tell the eunuch to proceed, then
the latter does it of his own accord and begins the congress.
If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputes
with him, and only consents at last with difficulty.
The following eight things are then done by the eunuch one after
The nominal congress
Biting the sides
Sucking a mango fruit
At the end of each of these, the eunuch expresses his wish to
stop, but when one of them is finished, the man desires him to
do another, and after that is done, then the one that follows
it, and so on.
When, holding the man's lingam with his hand, and placing it between
his lips, the eunuch moves about his mouth, it is called the `nominal
When, covering the end of the lingam with his fingers collected
together like the bud of a plant or flower, the eunuch presses
the sides of it with his lips, using his teeth also, it is called
`biting the sides'.
When, being desired to proceed, the eunuch presses the end of
the lingam with his lips closed together, and kisses it as if
he were drawing it out, it is called the `outside pressing'.
When, being asked to go on, he puts the lingam further into his
mouth, and presses it with his lips and then takes it out, it
is called the `inside pressing'.
When, holding the lingam in his hand, the eunuch kisses it as
if he were kissing the lower lip, it is called `kissing'.
When, after kissing it, he touches it with his tongue everywhere,
and passes the tongue over the end of it, it is called `rubbing'.
When, in the same way, he puts the half of it into his mouth,
and forcibly kisses and sucks it, this is called `sucking a mango
And lastly, when, with the consent of the man, the eunuch puts
the whole lingam into his mouth, and presses it to the very end,
as if he were going to swallow it up, it is called `swallowing
Striking, scratching, and other things may also be done during
this kind of congress.
The Auparishtaka is practised also by unchaste and wanton women,
female attendants and serving maids, i.e. those who are not married
to anybody, but who live by shampooing.
The Acharyas (i.e. ancient and venerable authors) are of opinion
that this Auparishtaka is the work of a dog and not of a man,
because it is a low practice, and opposed to the orders of the
Holy Writ, and because the man himself suffers by bringing his
lingam into contact with the mouths of eunuchs and women. But
Vatsyayana says that the orders of the Holy Writ do not affect
those who resort to courtesans, and the law prohibits the practice
of the Auparishtaka with married women only. As regards the injury
to the male,
that can be easily remedied.
The people of Eastern India do not resort to women who practise
The people of Ahichhatra resort to such women, but do nothing
with them, so far as the mouth is concerned.
The people of Saketa do with these women every kind of mouth congress,
while the people of Nagara do not practise this, but do every
The people of the Shurasena country, on the southern bank of the
Jumna, do everything without any hesitation, for they say that
women being naturally unclean, no one can be certain about their
character, their purity, their conduct, their practices, their
confidences, or their speech. They are not however on this account
to be abandoned, because religious law, on the authority of which
they are reckoned pure, lays down that the udder of a cow is clean
at the time of milking, though the mouth of a cow, and also the
mouth of her calf, are considered unclean by the Hindoos. Again
a dog is clean when he seizes a deer in hunting, though food touched
by a dog is otherwise considered very unclean. A bird is clean
when it causes a fruit to fall from a tree by pecking at it, though
things eaten by crows and other birds are considered unclean.
And the mouth of a woman is clean for kissing and such like things
at the time of sexual intercourse. Vatsyayana moreover thinks
that in all these things connected with love, everybody should
act according to the custom of his country, and his own inclination.
There are also the following verses on the subject:
`The male servants of some men carry on the mouth congress with
their masters. It is also practised by some citizens, who know
each other well, among themselves. Some women of the harem, when
they are amorous, do the acts of the mouth on the yonis of one
another, and some men do the same thing with women. The way of
doing this (i.e. of kissing the yoni) should be known from kissing
the mouth. When a man and woman lie down in an inverted order,
i.e. with the head of the one towards the feet of the other and
carry on this congress, it is called the "congress of a crow".'
For the sake of such things courtesans abandon men possessed of
good qualities, liberal and clever, and become attached to low
persons, such as slaves and elephant drivers. The Auparishtaka,
or mouth congress, should never be done by a learned Brahman,
by a minister that carries on the business of a state, or by a
man of good reputation, because though the practice is allowed
by the Shastras, there is no reason why it should be carried
on, and need only be practised in particular cases. As for instance,
the taste, and the strength, and the digestive qualities of the
flesh of dogs are mentioned in works on medicine, but it does
not therefore follow that it should be eaten by the wise. In the
same way there are some men, some places and some times, with
respect to which these practices can be made use of. A man should
therefore pay regard to the place, to the time, and to the practice
which is to be carried out, as also as to whether it is agreeable
to his nature and to himself, and then he may or may not practise
these things according to circumstances. But after all, these
things being done secretly, and the mind of the man being fickle,
how can it be known what any person will do at any particular
time and for any particular purpose.
1 This practice appears to have been prevalent in some
parts of India from a very ancient time. The Shustruta, a work
on medicine some two thousand years old, describes the wounding
of the lingam with the teeth as one of the causes of a disease
treated upon in that work. Traces of the practice are found as
far back as the eighth century, for various kinds of the Auparishtaka
represented in the sculptures of many Shaiva temples at Bhuvaneshwara,
near Cuttack, in Orissa, and which were built about that period.
From these sculptures being found in such places, it would seem
that this practice was popular in that part of the country at
that time. It does not seem to be
so prevalent now in Hindustan, its place perhaps is filled up
by the practice of sodomy, introduced since the Mahomedan period.
Of the way how to begin and how to end the congress. Different
kinds of congress and love quarrels
In the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant with
perfumes, attended by his friends and servants, the citizen should
receive the woman, who will come bathed and dressed, and will
invite her to take refreshment and to drink freely. He should
then seat her on his left side, and holding her hair, and touching
also the end and knot of her garment, he should gently embrace
her with his right arm. They should then carry on an amusing conversation
on various subjects, and may also talk suggestively of things
which would be considered as coarse, or not to be mentioned generally
in society. They may then sing, either with or without gesticulations,
and play on musical instruments, talk about the arts, and persuade
each other to drink. At last when the woman is overcome with love
and desire, the citizen should dismiss the people that may be
with him, giving them flowers, ointments, and betel leaves, and
then when the two are left alone, they should proceed as has been
already described in the previous chapters.
Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress,
the lovers with modesty, and not looking at each other, should
go separately to the washing-room. After this, sitting in their
own places, they should eat some betel leaves, and the citizen
should apply with his own hand to the body of the oman some pure
sandal wood ointment, or ointment of some other kind. He should
then embrace her with his left arm, and with agreeable words should
cause her to drink from a cup held in his own hand, or he may
give her water to drink. They can then eat sweetmeats, or anything
else, according to their likings and may drink fresh juice (1),
soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the juice of mango fruits,
the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed with sugar,
or anything that may be liked in different countries, and known
to be sweet, soft, and pure. The lovers may also sit on the terrace
of the palace or house, and enjoy the moonlight, and carry on
an agreeable conversation. At this time, too, while the woman
lies in his lap, with her face towards the moon, the citizen should
show her the different planets, the morning star, the polar star,
and the seven Rishis, or Great Bear.
This is the end of sexual union.
Congress is of the following kinds:
Congress of subsequent love
Congress of artificial love
Congress of transferred love
Congress like that of eunuchs
Congress of spontaneous love
When a man and a woman, who have been in love with each other
for some time, come together with great difficulty, or when one
of the two returns from a journey, or is reconciled after having
been separated on account of a quarrel, then congress is called
the `loving congress'. It is carried on according to the liking
of the lovers, and as long as they choose.
When two persons come together, while their love for each other
is still in its infancy, their congress is called the `congress
of subsequent love'.
When a man carries on the congress by exciting himself by means
of the sixty-four ways, such as kissing, etc., etc., or when a
man and a woman come together, though in reality they are both
attached to different persons, their congress is then called `congress
of artificial love'. At this time all the ways and means mentioned
in the Kama Shastra should be used.
When a man, from the beginning to the end of the congress, though
having connection with the woman, thinks all the time that he
is enjoying another one whom he loves, it is called the `congress
of transferred love'.
Congress between a man and a female water carrier, or a female
servant of a caste lower than his own, lasting only until the
desire is satisfied, is called `congress like that of eunuchs'.
Here external touches, kisses, and manipulation are not to be
The congress between a courtesan and a rustic, and that between
citizens and the women of villages, and bordering countries, is
called `deceitful congress'.
The congress that takes place between two persons who are attached
to one another, and which is done according to their own liking
is called `spontaneous congress'.
Thus end the kinds of congress.
We shall now speak of love quarrels.
A woman who is very much in love with a man cannot bear to hear
the name of her rival mentioned, or to have any conversation regarding
her, or to be addressed by her name through mistake. If such takes
place, a great quarrel arises, and the woman cries, becomes angry,
tosses her hair about, strikes her lover, falls from her bed or
seat, and, casting aside her garlands and ornaments, throws herself
down on the ground.
At this time, the lover should attempt to reconcile her with conciliatory
words, and should take her up carefully and place her on her bed.
But she, not replying to his questions, and with increased anger,
should bend down his head by pulling his hair, and having kicked
him once, twice, or thrice on his arms, head, bosom or back, should
then proceed to the door of the room. Dattaka says that she should
then sit angrily near the door and shed tears, but should not
go out, because she would be found fault with for going away.
After a time, when she thinks that the conciliatory words and
actions of her lover have reached their utmost, she should then
embrace him, talking to him with harsh and reproachful words,
but at the same time showing a loving desire for congress.
When the woman is in her own house, and has quarrelled with her
lover, she should go to him and show how angry she is, and leave
him. Afterwards the citizen having sent the Vita, the Vidushaka
or the Pithamarda (2) to pacify her, she should accompany them
back to the house, and spend the night with her lover.
Thus end the love quarrels.
A man, employing the sixty-four means mentioned by Babhravya,
obtains his object, and enjoys the woman of the first quality.
Though he may speak well on other subjects, if he does not know
the sixty-four divisions, no great respect is paid to him in the
assembly of the learned. A man, devoid of other knowledge, but
well acquainted with the sixty-four divisions, becomes a leader
in any society of men and women. What man will not respect the
sixty-four arts (3), considering they are respected by the learned,
by the cunning, and by the courtesans. As the sixty-four arts
are respected, are charming, and add to the talent of women, they
are called by the Acharyas dear to women. A man skilled in the
sixty-four arts is looked upon with love by his own wife, by the
wives of others, and by courtesans.
1 The fresh juice of the cocoa nut tree, the
date tree, and other kinds of palm trees are drunk in India. It
will keep fresh very long, but ferments rapidly, and is then distilled
2 The characteristics of these three individuals
have been given in Part I
A definition of the sixty-four arts is given in Part I, Chapter